The G-res Tool

Relevant literature

Scientific literature using the G-res Tool

Harrison JA, YT Prairie, C Soued, S Mercier-Blais. 2021. Year-2020 global distribution and pathways of reservoir methane and carbon dioxide emissions according to the greenhouse gas from reservoirs (G-res) model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 35.

Levasseur A, S Mercier-Blais, YT Prairie, A Tremblay, C Turpin. 2020. Improving the accuracy of electricity carbon footprint: Estimation of hydroelectric reservoir greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 136 (2021) 110433.

Soued C, Prairie YT. 2020. The carbon footprint of a Malaysian tropical reservoir : measured versus modeled estimates highlight the underestimated key role of downstream processes. Biogeosciences, 17, 515-527, 2020. DOI:10.5194/bg-2019-385

van Vuuren L. 2019. Financing dam projects with green bonds – water engineering.  Civil Engineering.

Bin, Z. et al. 2019. The net GHG flux assessment model of reservoir(G-res Tool) and its application in reservoirs in upper reaches of Yangtze River in China. J Lake Sci 31, 1479–1488 (2019).

Li Z, Du H, Xu H, Xiao Y, Lu L, Guo J, Prairie YT, Mercier-Blais S. 2019. The carbon footprint of large- and mid-scale hydropower in China: Synthesis from five China’s largest hydro-project. Journal of environmental management 250 (2019) 109363 DOI:

Dhakal PR. 2018. Greenhouse gas emissions from fresh water reservoirs. Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. June 2018.

Jiang T, Shen Z, Liu Y, Hou Y. 2018. Carbon Footprint Assessment of Four Normal Size Hydropower Stations in China. Sustainability 10-02018. doi:10.3390/su10062018.

Prairie YT, J Alm, J Beaulieu, N Barros, T Battin, JJ Cole, PA del Giorgio, T DelSontro, F Guérin, A Harby, J Harrison, S Mercier-Blais, D Serça, S Sobek and D Vachon. 2018. GHG emissions from freshwater reservoirs: what does the atmosphere see? Ecosystems DOI: 10.1007/s10021-017-0198-9

Kamal, M. 2017. Scenario of Small Hydro Power Projects in India and Its Environmental Aspect. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology. 04:10, 228-234.

Kumar A, Sharma MP. 2016. A modeling approach to assess the greenhouse gas risk in Koteshwar hydropower reservoir, India. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22:8, 1651-1664, DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2016.1209077.

Guidelines recommending the G-res Tool

Patel, S, Shakya, C and Rai, N. 2020. Climate finance for hydropower: Incentivising the low- carbon transition. IIED, London.

European Commission, EU Technical Expert Group on Sustainable Finance. 2020. Financing a Sustainable European Economy – Taxonomy Report: Technical Annex

IEA Hydropower. 2018. Hydropower and the environment: Managing the Carbon Balance in Freshwater Reservoirs Guidelines for Quantitative Analysis of Net GHG Emissions from Reservoirs. IEA Hydro Technical Report, Volume 3 – Management, Mitigation and Allocation.

World Bank Group. 2017. Greenhouse Gases from Reservoirs Caused by Biogeochemical Processes. Water Global Practice, Technical Note.

Climate Bonds Initiative. 2019. Open for public consultation. The Hydropower Criteria. Climate Bonds Standard.

WWF. 2022. Insuring a nature positive world: an insurer’s guide to hydropower.


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